A Case Study On Cultural Hegemony


Chinkhanmuan Samte

Note: This piece of writing has been first published in an academic journal named "DEMOCRACY, EDUCATION, AND NATIONALIST DISCOURSES." March 2018 under St. Joseph College of Commerce, Bengaluru 560025.


The study of culture and hegemony tries to examine different cells in a circle, trying to find out the center point and its periphery, in which we consciously or unconsciously enticed to an assumption that there is an originally fixed point, or center or a fixed origin. Culture is a systematic mores which multiplies and cultivates our believe systems. In Cultural studies and in the process of homogenization, certain amount of myth has been created so as to hegemonized, culturalized or naturalized human vices in the pursuit of purposeful living. Barthes’ Mythologies is quite relevent in this cultural context (Barthes. Roland, 1957), as social systems in many ways has been mythicized and later become a popular practice which then the myth become a mores through myth, and the object being portrayed entered into the cultural world— as having values and significance. It is a social movement, constructed in order to abide by law, or to control social deviance or to seize or to subjugate. It is an ongoing process world wide having both its sides.

Secondly, Structuralism and Post Structuralism plays a vital role in order to understand culture and its affinity. Claude Levi-Strauss, the one who propounded Structuralism, believed that kinship, myth, ritual and language governed every culture with some hidden rules. It is true that Structuralism has underlined the principle of centrality that govern societal process, where Derrida’s free play is absent as per his Deconstruction. Contrast to this, in Post-Structuralism, which emerged and deconstructed from Structuralism, there is no longer centrality of the whole units, all units becomes a free play, in which therefore, Ferdinand de Saussure says, in relate to binary opposition “reality is socially constructed through mental image”. (Ferdinand de. Saussure, 1916:166).

To analyze culture, hegemony and democracy— the structurality of structure occupies and covers the central, to understand the structure and the depth—wideth and breath—height, by applying Jacque Derrida's Deconstruction. Human perception and concepts which are derived traditionally from ancient heritage clings toward superstitions and the object being portrayed- governs the wholeness of the believe systems. Some objects were socially framed as a speaking subject. (Kristeva. Julia, 1989, 272). It is within the structure and how we perceive the structural interpretations, in which Jacque Derrida says language governed the formation of the structure, which means through meanings afrer meaning; reality are constructed as Julia Kristeva coinage. The object is subjectified, sementically to speak, in the form of language and it dominate all the structural periphery, since then. The gospel of John also mentioned and stressed the importance and the power of word, which served as the very beginning of all thing. (The Gospel of John 1:3-1, The Holy Bible, English Standard Version, 2001)

As long as human being exists, Culture will exist. Therefore, culture is a living phenomena that undergo changed and subjected to be changed according to time, space and place from time to time. It is a way of live and a traditional practices— vices and mores, norms and sets of believes— passes on from one generation to the next generation since time immemorial. It is a time bound practice which gradually developed with the intervention of natural entity and human necessities that came along. There is no fix and original entity as it keep changing except by following or maintaining a standardized scale; but— culture is a social construct based on the non stop need-based social customs, which manifest the interdependence in humanity, as no man could stay isolated against the will of the nature in seclusion.

According to Raymond Williams, Culture is a combination of democracy, industry, and arts, where his main focussed is on the evolution of British culture. He clasped his cultural idea after the monarchical form of government in Britain within the time spans of 1780 to 1950 to described the specific course of culture—commonly practice by all citizens regardless of class and hierarchy. (Williams. Raymond, 1958: 315). Eighteenth century Europe is the time when Industrialization, Renaissance and Enlightenment are in full swing, where culture has been reshaped, induced and deduced upon various trend in arts and sciences. Thus, culture evolved and revolved round and round adjacent to human progress. It is a nonstop process; as human need does, from localized society to globalized world, and later, the world turn to be a global village due to easy transcommunication. Human beings are inflicted to needs in all fields without limitations from primitive society to technological graphic world. Culture has been invented through man vigorous activism. Thus, in the course of this, hegemony has taken place, probably encompassed by religious and political twist.

Perhaps, there may be no original or pure cultural identity as different ethnic groups/identities are socialized within cultural entity through education, fashion, language etc with time. Practices are firstly naturalized— so as to adapt with the natural environment, secondly, it is culturalized— to locate human dignity, and thirdly— it is socialized— to strengthen gentry, ancestry, and the inter-lineage of social relationship. The definition of culture, therefore, remained ever the same; so as to elevate socially acceptable norms, and to preserve practices which are socially sanctioned though, having its own limitations and degrees; but the reality of culture are always diverse, complex and sometime complicated. It is diverse in its meaning, forms and types. Inter-cultural amalgamation or accumulation need transculturation to shelter a plural society like democratic India which are bounded by diversity from hills to plain, caste creed, race and gender. It is the basic structure and the backbone of India.

Homi Bhabha’s "Location of Culture", (1994 by Routledge), "Nation and Narration" (1990), Gayatri Spivak’s "Can the Subaltern Speak?" (2010) Leela Gandhi’s "Thinking Otherwise", (2007) Chinua Achebe’s "Colonialist Criticism", (1958) Gandhi’s "Hind Swaraj" (1909) and Edward Said’s "Orientalism" (1978) directs or against eurocentricism or colonization, while cultural heterogeneity has already taken place. Thus, defining cultural identity after 400 years of colonization is no longer constant or fixed. Even before that, according to history, annexation and conquest took placed, too. With the wake of nationalist discourse in order to define ourself, our dignity and identity in the midst of diasporic era; there is no more direct and straight definition of culture. Colonial conquest also emits lights despite exploitation. Culture is just evolving following its own pattern. However, it shapes are glamorized based on power structure.

We needs to redefine and refine terms in cultural aspects. Broadly speaking, as one can no longer admit only a single cultural identity even though there is a form of mainstream (elite) culture and others such as— sub culture or counter culture. The bonding of human being with culture which is known as Cultural Affinity is derived from social-strata and social institutions, has been swayed by class divisions, is the agent to equip cultural homogeneity and heterogeneity, since cultural affinity lies within human beings.

The study of culture is broad and vast, as culture goes parallel with political institutions such as— democracy, and all other social institutions which are very much active in the society. However, it can be seen separately as a mixture of oil and water in a bottle. But politicization of culture like for example, vote bank politics and for the aim of political gain to promote certain sects against another could not ease but cease social progress and growth as it used to assert asserted religious and caste elements, which may, in many way appease one section another, where pluralism can be seen from one edge to another edges in the social world. Culture is far and wide, but it is vaster under democracy, as rights came by.

Antonio Gramsci developed the concept of Cultural Hegemony based on Karl Marx’s theory that the dominant ideology in the society defined and shaped the social structure of culture through social institutions like education, economy, media, family, religion, politics, and laws through these social institutions. In both these social institutions, such as Capitalist and Marxist, hegemony takes place. Marxist ideology, theoretically sounds well which probably is better than capitalist economy as it was persuasive rhetorically; for there will be high level of equality achievements, it is, but without man's choice of freedom. You will be the state property, and your work will be equally distributed amongst the people, and you have no authority over it, because you are own by the state. Production and Consumption are the ideas that is contested in both the systems, both of which would be good, untill and unless the citizen adhered. In Marxism, no privatization, however, the modern days Communist and Marxist countries upgrade the system to engulf or enlarged the ideology. Chinese President Xi Xinping in his address at the World Economic Forum, 22-26 January 2018, Davos-Klosters, Switzerland, says, "Development for all" satirizing democracy for all. In Capitalistic society, the state own the people and vice versa and, thus, growth was stabilized. The idea of social equality in both the ideologies aims at the growth and development of its citizen. The Capitalist want to build up a strong economy from its citizen by allowing them to established private firms, which, though, often creates class and hierarchy; while marxist believes the idea that capitalism create unnecessarily social division known as classism. Hegemony is also a contested of ideologies between different approaches in economic perspective and social progress.

Cultural hegemony is a hideous subject which contained vast seas and a deep oceans. In cultural studies, cultural binarism and hybridization or assimilation are always an unanswered question to scholars. Burried history and glory are hard to engrave, but it is the tips of an iceberg to us. If the history-based derived construction, or reality has good representation for interpretation, social and political conflicts can be hugely avoided; as ideologies used to clash, if history is one sided, the society can be aired by controversies which further may crumbled. Padmavati, a movie which depicts a sweet romance, a love relationship between a Hindu girl and a Muslim King, which is just a reeled life, and no one would probably be sured on the ground reality of 600 years of bygone history, was contradicted. Cultural evolution then revolutions took place throughout all civilizations and in all the empires. Later, with the awakenings of nationalism grounded upon identity politics, culture and democracy seemingly contested its ideology. As democracy enhance freedom, which creates rooms for all cultural imports and exports. Different types of also sub-culture evolved and the nationalists seems to protect the mainstream culture, if otherwise politicized.

A mainstream culture is a dominant one that has been practiced over time. But it can seize or ease democratic dialogue through assimilation or other means, as majority acts as a hegemonising agents with competence energized by power. Competence should not underestimate the less competents, especially in the context of heritage. However, as culture is at anytime subjected to be changed, positively without maiming and damaging the democratic ideals through social institutions, by lodging cultural norms and believes. Change is the fulfillment of cultural needs, and cultural needs are the needs of human beings and a saying goes, "Nothing in this world is permanent; except change". Cultural transition takes place only when there is the idea of fixity and coerce assertion. In the meantime, peace is the process, but a political peace or please and promises ends when religious elements are inserted, though, it is stringent. Faith and believe needs no politics as it is personal and emotional satiety; but way of live does. If faith and believe became a way of live, peace will be achieved.

According to scholars, the factors— of causes and effects results in cultural exploitation and hegemony. The modern trends and the pre-modern trends of changes in culture are not totally the same, while democracy is an effective factors on the other hand. Democracy opens the door for the possibility of live and existence. Any kind of hegemony takes place through consent by means of sets of societal mores.
Cultural hegemony is in one way or another way, a replacement (or equivalence) of culture by hegemonic assertion in various scales. Though, hegemony sounds sometime rude in different context, but it is a way of live. It is a "sound hegemony" that harmonized, without fixing lineages of terms in the society. But, what is domination in warfare and military especially in related to one country to another? What significance does it have if a country wage wars and dominate, like the Holocaust? By the way, the games goes on, but, why should one country attack another country?

Sub-cultures has effectively enhanced pre-modern and modern factors that underlines different cause—effects, which in-turn gained grounds in cultural homogenization.

a) Pre-modern factors:
One of the factors includes English education, but as a lingua franca while subjects has no verbal language. English education in schools, colleges and universities divert our language into English, it is not a mistake, it is a cultural process having it firm roots in history, which means language, as discussed earlier, plays one of the core factors in cultural heritage and it has been critiqued that English is an elite language to the non-native English speakers. Another cause is an evil societal practice in social system derived from social settings, where caste based prejudiced are prevalent, which casts low socio-economic development. This lights a new sub-culture to pattern themselves as another sections in the society. If there is no space in the place where one culture is located, the same is likely to be socially deviated since there is no space in the place, sheltering them; showcasing the coming of sub-culture (Sub-culture, here, I am referring to the revolutionary culture, which are prevalent in the region, beside the mainstream culture within the society) is certain, which is very similar to the problem or prejudiced faced by minor community in the surrounding hills of Manipur. Cultural accommodation is rather an essential component in order to lessen cultural boundaries- instead of drawing lines against each other. Culture is not to divide us, but to ignite the light of our strength for unity. What then does culture have if one culture doesn't accommodate another while cultural diversity encircling human beings from region to region around the world.
Late in the year 2015, on the peak of August, the government of Manipur, where the Consituent assembly was constituted by 75:25 non-tribals and tribal (Here, tribal, the word used is to denote the hill people, despite the people call themselves as tribal, the usage is not a vulgarized term) representatives urges by a hegemonic policy passed three bills by over-ruling against the wills of the hill people. Majority sometimes seems bias especially when there is misrepresentation by culminating the will of the minority. Majority comes with power, of course; but power is vulnerable to be misused, due to huge alignment of mass and velocity, it can cause friction and spark within itself or else outside. Power can do many things, big or small; good or bad. It can also invoke and provoke social disharmony at the same time social peace and harmony, and the later is more preferable.

Minority (Here, I used minority based on population, who are less in number— in different cultural spheres) who, thus have less voice and vote, in the midst of population and numbers in a pluralistic society like Manipur in particular, where there are different ethnicity blooms like a garden, or of books of library, followed their own practices and each ethic group are very closed to their natural habitat lands— where Ironba, Thangjing or Heigru , Maru-Marang. Sokngei, Huiva, or Zolengthe are tuned together as a heterogeneous cultural artistry and creation within its compact dice.

Don't we think, harmony is amicably achievable? Yes but, it can only be derived from our thoughts, as thought is, believe it or not what that makes us. Do we need to count vote, then, yes, why not! Everybody knows majority wins, especially in politics who differed in caste, creed, race and religion. But what about the will and interest of the people? Is there any democracy where will wins for the preservation of the interest of the indigenous people who are incapable to protect their land rights simply because of the numbers. Political proceedings and human emotional ties need to be considered and redefine in the pursuit ruling, winning and governing. I believed, the will of the people counts as well regardless of numbers— and what if the will was being under seized. It even may account for the state negligence or political cheapness on price tag, as money used to come by. Nobody cannot go away from government, as one cannot go away from the society. So, good governance, through participation is in the hand of us, yes. it is especially in the hands of the rich's.

A protest broke out against the bills which costs 9 lives where 7 of them were bluntly and brutally murdered during the protest, the others were accidentally died in the same case. And many got injured. The bills gives an unnecessary dead. The three bills' against the the community since it underlines 1951 as the based year in order to be a citizen of India, which means their genealogical records should be in the government records latest by 1951, which exclude many. Exclusive Oppression! Contrarily, the Census program didn’t covered numbers of village due to trans-communication gap, no efficient network system and no proper census counts. In reality, the government want to outline as many people as possible, by prejudicing and claiming; that this community were a refugees coming from Myanmar, but, such a lame excuse! 'A person who born in India is an Indian.' These ethnic groups lived in their ancestral lands since time immemorial. The land rights was given to them by the British during their colonial course, which is before the creation of Manipur in 1972, Southern Manipur were not a part of it at those days,but by small and gradual annexation it has became the present state. [For Zomi in Myanmar and Zomi in Manipur, see V(c) ii)]

The bills were rejected by the President of India, thus, not passed, but, Churachandpur (should be changed to Lamka, or the name given by the community, Churachandpur as the name of the district was a wrong assertion, unless otherwise hegemonized) districts is bifurcated into Pherzawl. Hegemonisation also happens through politics at the cost of the minority in the interest of majority. The politics of majority and minority needs proper examination and execution. The state of being majority or minority shouldn’t be the lead, but, justice, equality and fairness be. Power can be used effectively for the goodness and well being of the citizens but not for oppression.

The bills are as follows:

Manipur Peoples' Bill 2015
Manipur Shops & Est 2 Amend Bill 2015

b) The Modern factors:
This includes new technological trends where internet and modern technology. The language of internet is English, or atleast, the main script uses in there is English or Roman scripts. Through, these agents, as Grimsci says, “..education, economy, media, fashion, family, religion, politics, laws...” etc are maintained. Why shouldn’t there be no cultural hegemony, if the above is the case. At the same time, these agents were things that one cannot put away from our day to day life. It is a social system paddling the society but, when politicized, cultural exploitation take place. Media plays an important factors in the process.

c) State Negligence:
In a democratic country, most social issues and social achievement can be credited to government. If government is good, good will be the people and the higher the citizen achieved. On the other hand, the state is expected to meets the needs of all its citizens, by providing jobs or other form of livelihood, since the responsibility is in the hand of the state. As mention earlier, here comes the employed and the unemployed, the rich and the poor, so on and so forth. This emanates the emergence of various social groups which is known as sub-culture. Multiplicity and diversity is a social pattern.
Arguably, we are not emphasizing that all sub-cultures and its agents are replacing or against the mainstream culture. No, Culture cannot be stopped or terminated, but it rather keep evolving by following its own process. The most effective sub-culture may be westernization, as it occupies most of our social systems, in dress code, technology, education, etc.

The prejudiced groups set up sub-culture in the aims of political or cultual/societal impact, like for instance the transgenders, who lately starts their activism. Now, even though not all, but most of the new cultural trends in this iera, becomes a common fashionand probably practice by all depending upon personal choice. Sub-culture, like other culture evolved naturally as per the needs of different types of people having different concepts and beliefs in the society. It has changed the cultural pattern due to hi-admiration or due to psychological attribution.

Looking the scenario in a nationalistic— which could be multi or one dimensional view, hegemony, thereby, subdued culture through cultural object. The assumption and apprehension is always greater than its reality in regards to the questions of cultural replacement. It is just a language, but language become an objects. Polarization of culture lead to clashes and chaos in which religions and democracy are victimized when nationalism is hegemonized in the pursuit of nationalism under democracy. Sub-culture or counter culture comes from within as well as from outside when hegemony in any form took over. Mainstream culture and sub-culture need accommodative balance as it use to impose, otherwise barriers against one another.

The principles of democracy and culture need to be understood. In today’s world, politics is the lead over all, whereas in primitive society, man is the lead over nature and culture. Human beings are the sources of culture by extracting culture from nature— the flora and fauna, the vales and hill ranges, seas and oceans. Nature and culture goes hand in which it was followed by claims and rights or belongingness. Diversity in culture, once again, led to the emergence of political systems in which culture need to be framed or standardized. We are fortunate in the embracement of democracy as a spirit of our politics. (Culture, Institutions and Democratization, by Gerald Roland, University of California and Berkeley). Exercising one cultural rights and natural rights are the gift of democracy, as it allow the freedom to pursue one choice, until and unless it is a legitimately guaranteed in the constitution.

There are numbers of rights given in the Constitution in which the rights includes the whole of politics, as politics nonetheless, covers up and occupies all the essential live-stream in our humanly existence. Rights— even though constitutionalized or institutionalized, still it is always vulnerable since there are various social inequality encrypted in the society, and without good governance, training and leadership, one cannot fully exercised his rights. Thus, power structure comes— the have and the have nots, the weaks and the strongs, or otherwise, the priviledge and the underpriviledge. The system of power alignment was followed by hegemony. Hegemony also tortured the poor and power is biased only when it is misused. Therefore, hegemony happens from low level and merges it cells throughout sections of the society. In this stage, the rights are deprived and has nothing or little to do when power structure was hinged systematically. No one could go out of the society and forget its processes. Power is given to the capable to inculcate growth and to fill the gap of inequality in order to live life with full potential and become a good citizen.

Therefore, hegemony and power structure are the salient features of human society. The systems needs not be thrown away, even if we tried, the social structure might rather fall, but it is participation that will emancipates the hegemonic coils. Education might open all minds or it is hegemony— our right. The proper functioning of social institution are necessary to vitalize our existence as they are the very essences, well being, health and wealth to its citizens.

Colonization took placed in many parts of the world. America is the first country free from the colonizers, though the native identity of America has been displaced since 1776. the year when they attained Independence. India for instance taking from the time when the British traders established the British East India Company in 1600, the period last about 400 years.

a) Cultural Diversity as a backbone of India since Pre-Colonization:
The Indian subcontinent consists of a vast chunk of landmass, extending it territory wide and far. Through the conquest within and from outside, and finally with the colonial independence, India has been bifurcated into different regions. As a colonized country in the midst of diversity, where every region have their own ethnic identities, social systems, practice etc. Colonization brought the diversity together in one way or another way to fought against the British/Colonizers.

The ancient Indus-Saraswati Civilization, The Mughal Empire and the British India has its own entity and its own domain. As far as practicable, we will discuss a colonized India by deconstructing from today’s India. So, India and its polity, economy and all kinds of systems are culturally looted, meaning— cultural homogenization has taken placed. However, colonization has more of it positive aspects than its negative entity. It is a good choice that the national forefront leaders such as Nehru, Gandhi, Dr. B.R Ambedkar, etc have opted democratic form of government, by applying the British Parliamentary forms, while they can throne themselves as monarch or dictator. India, a diverse country in the primary stages have its own princely states. Through colonization, the princely states come together to form the United India, to free from colonizer— India, a hegemonized country had won freedom. Cultural diversity remains, political and economical gap was stringent. Cultural barriers are brought together through the introduction of English medium education, while there are strong regionalism in parts of the country.

b) Cultural dilemma:
Colonization and lingual difference may be the factors that inculcate dilemma in culture. Or ideology within a culture may be a factor that cultivates cultural dilemma. Dilemma in culture can be both come from within and with out (outside). It is a situation where there is one or more contesting ideas or differences in the social systems— where ideologies are contesting against each other. Thus culture, naturally is one such element that creates differences. Now, culture and democracy become a very important subject to be understood. Culture stick to a certain social pattern following a specific path in the midst of another culture. But, democracy wants to open its door of culture without stigmatizing the existing cultural phenomenon for peaceful co-existence.

In a democratic country like India, co-existence in diversity is such a huge institution, as it requires lots of studies, review, redefine and refine because it diverse cultural lineage, language, caste, creed, race, ideologies. Yes, every body want original identity, but, this is simply not practicable, where a country promotes western educations, thoughts and cultures. One simple example being Jean Culture from the West. Culture, which is not a single line and democracy is a multi-dimensional. Propagating a single cultural ideology can cause social chaos. However, multi-culture ideas have been imparted to bridges cultural distance.
Again, Marxist ideology and capitalist ideologies contested its ideology even though India is a democratic country, where the constitution wants democracy as an agent of freedom to maintaining basic human rights. Many of the democratic ideologies are Marxist especially in today’s political plays. Therefore, for cultural survival, unless politicized or otherwise, the spirit of democracy should be looked upon. The formation of social structure play an important role in our cultural and national discourses. Culture is the code everybody followed which is true especially in plural society. It will be truly valuable if one can keep the spirit of “Unity in Diversity.” It is— when the idea of one is interlink with one another delimiting dilemma. It is the people who exercised their rights in the name of politics victimized secularism with political and cultural bond.

c) Colonization: the Beginning of Diaspora:
History witnesses different types of diaspora in and around the world. The Jews diaspora is a diaspora that change and open the eyes of the world. But then, there’s another types of diaspora, a mild one, which came by choice, as the colonial appeasement on culture attracts people across the country and across the world. Diaspora, as discussed above, took place within as a bi-product of cultural discourse, since the British East India Company was set up in the 1600 and beyond. The difference between colonized and colonizer is; a develop country and a developing country who are capable and advance in various fields. Thus, diaspora easily take place in the contexts of India or to the other colonized countries. (Here we are examining a cultural diaspora, not the biblical diaspora, where Jews were dispersed from their lands)

i) Mainland India:
Diaspora is as old as British Colonization. Since then, people starts moving from India to different regions of the world— like in the US, UK, Australia, etc for better education, standard of living, etc. It is a social movement that one cannot stop and one cannot let. There would be varied reasons as well.

ii) Zomi:
As mentioned above, since the British regime, Zomi who lives in the northeastern part of the Indian subcontinent has been divided into two countries to India and Burma (now Myanmar). People who lives beside the Chindwin Rivers and its adjacent area in which their land extended as far as the Southern part of the modern Manipur. When the British divide India and Burma, the area of settlement has been divided. Some said, a kitchen divide. Their settlement should be either in India or in Burma as a whole. (Zomi in Diaspora, Jamang, Ngulkhanpau. 2014) As a result, they both become minority in India and in Myanmer. People who settled in Burma didn’t seek refuge to Southern Manipur in India, It is not that even though, it is claimed so. Therefore, Zomi, or the Kuki Chin group in Burma, who speak Tibeto-Burmese were politically under sieze, due to political junta, get their refuges to US, UK, Australia, etc and tens and thousands of Zomi lived abroad. This is another colonial mistakes to such a small number of people. They are not just culturally knitted together, they are one in language and in genealogy.

The following are the factors that influence hegemony through cultural discourse. The perspectives, outcomes and interpretations of each theory may be different from person to person or scholar to scholars. Left or right view or liberal or neo-liberal views is not emphasized but its general principle along with a democratic ideals are rather emphasized. They are very similar in one way and differed in another way.

a) Binarism and Hybridity:
Binarism and hybridity are closely related and they are interdependent in cultural studies of post colonisation especially to the colonized countries. Binarism is a mixtures of two identity and it is one dimensional—meaning, it is usually mxiture or assimilation of two culture, while hybridity is multi-dimensional— entailing a mixture of inter-culture. There is no such immediate outcomes as a result of the mixture, as the emergence of culture usually takes years and years in order to amalgamate and assimilate. It is a cross cultural exchange, cultural synergy and transculturation.
The term hybridity has been sometimes misinterpreted as indicating something that denies the traditional forms. (Post Colonial Studies, p103)

b) Assimilationism:
In assimilationistic view, cultural exchange is a thing that cannot be avoided. It happens as a result of human progress. Intermixing of culture is in fact, a way of living and a single culture is lived only in a primitive society. An appreciation of a single entity of culture in a globalized world is no longer the case, but to assimilate and protect culture and its ethics. A state or an ethnic group can adopt a different culture due to political relevance, or even due to admiration.

Cultural assimilation can happen either spontaneously or forcibly. A culture can forcibly integrate other cultures. The term assimilation is often used with regard to immigrants and various ethnic groups who settled in a new land away from their native. New culture from the original culture are embraced through contact and communication

c) Populism:
Hegemony happens not only from outside, but it also happens within a country or society. Populism is of any principles, where the general public or ordinary people are targetted for ideological benefit by using sound rhetoric or unrealistic proposals in the political sphere. It is, as discussed earlier, more or less a politicisation of ideology so as to gain support from the ordinary people. It envisages the role of the common men. The basic idea of populism is power structure which lies depth underneath of ideologies.

d) Technocracy:
Technocracy is another hegemonic elements that rules the world in a very systematic manner by means of technological product from the smallest but very handy and useful tools like Cell hone to the fastest and the strongest warfare like Aeroplanes, Jet-fighters. The former was appreciated publicly and the later to the government for military purposes and defense. William Henry Smyth, a Californian engineer, is usually credited with inventing the word "technocracy" in 1919 to describe "the rule of the people made effective through the agency of their servants, the scientists and engineers". It is yet to rule dominate the system of the world in the years to come.

e) Elitism:
In any society whether in the Wests or in the Easts, there are certain section who are rich and capable, which enhance them to dominate the systems of society. It is a natural outcomes in the society or it could be as a result of oppressing where social inequality lies within it.
In reality, our social system are usually aligned by the elites groups in the society whether they borrow their idea from capitalist or Marxist’s ideology to light social dogmas. Elites’ dominion takes place through different media like Television shows, Advertisements, and various social performance.

Hegemony is an important social institution that shapes human culture and societal norms firstly through consent. With consent the social systems are reshaped and restructured. But it doesn’t mean that the customary norms and ethnicity of social identity are replaced. Being living in a globalized world, our needs on various fields’ increases, we therefore need to commemorate our ideals in order to meet our needs in the midst of a fast moving civilization, where technology has driven human being. Also, nobody can stay isolated and thus we are interdependent from one another. Therefore, in positive terminology, hegemony is a link to reach various skill as it is a daily phenomena.

As human movement and civilization proceeds on, the new age counting from Modernism in the wake of the twentieth century brought new approaches and genres. Man become the center, with the idea of existentialism and essentialism, cultural identity becomes a common quests to scholars. Popular Culture or Pop Culture accompanied by technology and human curiosity and toils reigns the world. Men are no more subjected to culture and identity, but, culture is subjected to men. (Hall, Stuart. 1996)


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17. Manipur Peoples’ Bill 2015.
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19. Bible, English Standard Version, 2001.

Apart from the above references, other references are taken from MA English syllabus, J.B Campus, Bengaluru 560056. I agree that there might be shortcomings in the writing and compiling of the text. But known errors and biases are omitted. And this a Seminar paper,an original work that I've presented on the Second of December 2017 to the above given institution.

Copyright is reserved by the author.

© Chinkhanmuan Samte

Suggested Readings:
Deconstruction by Jacques Derrida
Question of Cultural Identity by Staurt Hall, 1996
Mythilogies by Roland Barthes.